: Didactic Stories
: Types Of Children's Literature
Charles and Mary Lamb
There was a certain island in the sea, the only inhabitants of
which were an old man, whose name was Prospero, and his daughter
Miranda, a very beautiful young lady. She came to this island
so young, that she had no memory of having seen any other human
face than her father's.
They lived in a cave or cell, made out of a rock; it was divided
into several apartments, one of which Prospero called his study;
there he kept his books, which chiefly treated of magic, a study
at that time much affected by all learned men; and the knowledge of
this art he found very useful to him; for being thrown by a strange
chance upon this island, which had been enchanted by a witch
called Sycorax, who died there a short time before his arrival,
Prospero, by virtue of his art, released many good spirits that
Sycorax had imprisoned in the bodies of large trees, because they
had refused to execute her wicked demands. These gentle spirits
were ever after obedient to the will of Prospero. Of these Ariel was
The lively little sprite Ariel had nothing mischievous in his
nature, except that he took rather too much pleasure in tormenting
an ugly monster called Caliban, for he owed him a grudge,
because he was the son of his old enemy Sycorax. This Caliban,
Prospero found in the woods, a strange misshapen thing, far less
human in form than an ape; he took him home to his cell, and
taught him to speak; and Prospero would have been very kind to
him, but the bad nature which Caliban inherited from his mother
Sycorax would not let him learn anything good or useful: therefore
he was employed like a slave, to fetch wood and do the most laborious
offices; and Ariel had the charge of compelling him to these
When Caliban was lazy and neglected his work, Ariel (who was invisible
to all eyes but Prospero's) would come slyly and pinch him,
and sometimes tumble him down in the mire; and then Ariel, in the
likeness of an ape, would make mouths at him. Then swiftly changing
his shape, in the likeness of a hedgehog, he would lie tumbling
in Caliban's way, who feared the hedgehog's sharp quills would
prick his bare feet. With a variety of such like vexatious tricks
Ariel would often torment him, whenever Caliban neglected the work
which Prospero commanded him to do.
Having these powerful spirits obedient to his will, Prospero could
by their means command the winds, and the waves of the sea. By his
orders they raised a violent storm, in the midst of which, and
struggling with the wild sea-waves that every moment threatened
to swallow it up, he showed his daughter a fine large ship, which
he told her was full of living beings like themselves. "O my dear
father," said she, "if by your art you have raised this dreadful
storm, have pity on their sad distress. See! the vessel will be
dashed to pieces. Poor souls! they will all perish. If I had power,
I would sink the ship beneath the earth, rather than the good ship
should be destroyed, with all the precious souls within her.
"Be not so amazed, daughter Miranda," said Prospero; "there is
no harm done. I have so ordered it that no person in the ship shall
receive any hurt. What I have done has been in care of you, my
dear child. You are ignorant who you are, or where you came from,
and you know no more of me, but that I am your father, and live
in this poor cave. Can you remember a time before you came to
this cell? I think you cannot, for you were not then three years of
"Certainly I can, sir," replied Miranda.
"By what?" asked Prospero; "by any other house or person?
Tell me what you can remember, my child."
Miranda said, "It seems to me like the recollection of a dream.
But had I not once four or five women who attended upon me?"
Prospero answered, "You had, and more. How is it that this still
lives in your mind? Do you remember how you came here?"
"No, sir," said Miranda, "I remember nothing more."
"Twelve years ago, Miranda," continued Prospero, "I was duke
of Milan, and you were a princess, and my only heir. I had a
younger brother, whose name was Antonio, to whom I trusted
everything; and as I was fond of retirement and deep study, I
commonly left the management of my state affairs to your uncle,
my false brother (for so indeed he proved). I, neglecting all
worldly ends, buried among my books, did dedicate my whole time
to the bettering of my mind. My brother Antonio being thus in
possession of my power, began to think himself the duke indeed.
The opportunity I gave him of making himself popular among my
subjects awakened in his bad nature a proud ambition to deprive
me of my dukedom: this he soon effected with the aid of the king
of Naples, a powerful prince, who was my enemy."
"Wherefore," said Miranda, "did they not that hour destroy us?"
"My child," answered her father, "they durst not, so dear
was the love that my people bore me. Antonio carried us on board
a ship, and when we were some leagues out at sea he forced us
into a small boat, without either tackle, sail, or mast; there
he left us, as he thought, to perish. But a kind lord of my
court, one Gonzalo, who loved me, had privately placed in the
boat, water, provisions, apparel, and some books which I prize
above my dukedom."
"O my father," said Miranda, "what a trouble must I have been
to you then!"
"No, my love," said Prospero, "you were a little cherub that did
preserve me. Your innocent smiles made me to bear up against my
misfortunes. Our food lasted until we landed on this desert
island, since which time my chief delight has been in teaching
you, Miranda, and well have you profited by my instructions."
"Heaven thank you, my dear father," said Miranda. "Now
pray tell me, sir, your reason for raising this sea storm!"
"Know then," said her father, "that by means of this storm, my
enemies, the king of Naples and my cruel brother, are cast ashore
upon this island."
Having so said, Prospero gently touched his daughter with his
magic wand, and she fell fast asleep; for the spirit Ariel just
then presented himself before his master, to give an account of
the tempest, and how he had disposed of the ship's company; and
though the spirits were always invisible to Miranda, Prospero did
not choose that she should hear him holding converse (as would
seem to her) with the empty air.
"Well, my brave spirit," said Prospero to Ariel, "how have you
performed your task?"
Ariel gave a lively description of the storm, and of the terrors
of the mariners; and how the king's son, Ferdinand, was the first
who leaped into the sea; and his father thought he saw this dear
son swallowed up by the waves and lost. "But he is safe," said
Ariel, "in a corner of the isle, sitting with his arms folded,
sadly lamenting the loss of the king his father, whom he concludes
drowned. Not a hair of his head is injured, and his princely
garments, though drenched in the sea-waves, look fresher than
"That's my delicate Ariel," said Prospero. "Bring him hither: my
daughter must see this young prince. Where is the king, and my
"I left them," answered Ariel, "searching for Ferdinand, whom
they have little hopes of finding, thinking they saw him perish. Of
the ship's crew, not one is missing; though each one thinks himself
the only one saved: and the ship, though invisible to them, is safe in
"Ariel," said Prospero, "thy charge is faithfully performed: but
there is more work yet."
"Is there more work?" said Ariel. "Let me remind you, master,
you have promised me my liberty. I pray, remember, I have
done you worthy service, told you no lies, made no mistakes,
served you without grudge or grumbling."
"How now!" said Prospero. "You do not recollect what a
torment I freed you from. Have you forgot the wicked witch Sycorax,
who with age and envy was almost bent double? Where was
she born? Speak; tell me."
"Sir, in Algiers," said Ariel.
"O was she so?" said Prospero. "I must recount what you
have been, which I find you do not remember. This bad witch,
Sycorax, for her witchcrafts, too terrible to enter human hearing,
was banished from Algiers, and here left by sailors; and because
you were a spirit too delicate to execute her wicked commands, she
shut you up in a tree, where I found you howling. This torment,
remember, I did free you from."
"Pardon me, dear master," said Ariel, ashamed to seem ungrateful;
"I will obey your commands."
"Do so," said Prospero, "and I will set you free." He then
gave orders what further he would have him do; and away went
Ariel, first to where he had left Ferdinand, and found him still
sitting on the grass in the same melancholy position.
"O my young gentleman!" said Ariel, when he saw him, "I
will soon move you. You must be brought, I find, for the Lady
Miranda to have a sight of your pretty person. Come, sir, follow
He then began singing,--
"Full fathom five thy father lies;
Of his bones are coral made;
Those are pearls that were his eyes:
Nothing of him that doth fade,
But doth suffer a sea-change
Into something rich and strange,
Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell:
Hark, now I hear them, ding-dong-bell."
This strange news of his lost father soon roused the prince from
the stupid fit into which he had fallen. He followed in amazement
the sound of Ariel's voice, till it led him to Prospero and Miranda,
who were sitting under the shade of a large tree. Now Miranda
had never seen a man before, except her own father.
"Miranda," said Prospero, "tell me what you are looking at yonder."
"O father!" said Miranda, in a strange surprise, "surely that
is a spirit. Lord! how it looks about! Believe me sir, it is a
beautiful creature. Is it not a spirit?"
"No, girl," answered the father; "it eats, and sleeps, and has
senses such as we have. This young man you see was in the ship.
He is somewhat altered by grief, or you might call him a handsome
person. He has lost his companions, and is wandering about to find
Miranda, who thought all men had grave faces and gray beards
like her father, was delighted with the appearance of this beautiful
young prince; and Ferdinand, seeing such a lovely lady in this desert
place, and from the strange sounds he had heard, expecting nothing
but wonders, thought he was upon an enchanted island, and that
Miranda was the goddess of the place, and as such he began to
She timidly answered she was no goddess, but a simple maid, and
was going to give him an account of herself, when Prospero interrupted
her. He was well pleased to find they admired each other,
for he plainly perceived they had (as we say) fallen in love at first
sight; but to try Ferdinand's constancy, he resolved to throw some
difficulties in their way; therefore, advancing forward, he addressed
the prince with a stern air, telling him, he came to the island as a
spy, to take it from him who was the lord of it. "Follow me," said
he, "I will tie you neck and feet together. You shall drink seawater;
shell-fish, withered roots, and husks of acorns shall be your
food." "No," said Ferdinand, "I will resist such entertainment,
till I see a more powerful enemy," and drew his sword; but Prospero,
waving his magic wand, fixed him to the spot where he stood, so that
he had no power to move.
Miranda hung upon her father, saying, "Why are you so ungentle?
Have pity, sir; I will be his surety. This is the second man
I ever saw, and to me he seems a true one."
"Silence," said the father, "one word more will make me chide
you, girl! What! an advocate for an impostor! You think there
are no more such fine men, having seen only him and Caliban.
I tell you, foolish girl, most men as far excel this as he does
Caliban." This he said to prove his daughter's constancy; and she
replied," My affections are most humble. I have no wish to see
a goodlier man."
"Come on, young man," said Prospero to the prince, "you have
no power to disobey me."
"I have not, indeed," answered Ferdinand; and not knowing that
it was by magic that he was deprived of all power of resistance, he
was astonished to find himself so strangely compelled to follow
Prospero: looking back on Miranda as long as he could see her, he said,
as he went after Prospero into the cave, "My spirits are all bound
up, as if I were in a dream; but this man's threats, and the weakness
which I feel, would seem light to me if from my prison I
might once a day behold this fair maid."
Prospero kept Ferdinand not long confined within his cell: he
soon brought out his prisoner, and set him a severe task to perform,
taking care to let his daughter know the hard labor he had imposed
on him, and then pretending to go into his study, he secretly
watched them both.
Prospero had commanded Ferdinand to pile up some heavy logs
of wood. King's sons not being much used to laborious work,
Miranda soon after found her lover almost dying with fatigue.
"Alas!" said she, "do not work so hard; my father is at his
studies, he is safe for these three hours; pray rest yourself."
"O my dear lady!" said Ferdinand, "I dare not. I must finish
my task before I take any rest."
"If you will sit down," said Miranda, "I will carry your logs the
while." But this Ferdinand would by no means agree to. Instead
of a help Miranda became a hindrance, for they began a long
conversation, so that the business of log-carrying went on very
Prospero, who had enjoined Ferdinand this task merely as a trial
of his love, was not at his books, as his daughter supposed, but
was standing by them invisible, to overhear what they said.
Ferdinand inquired her name, which she told, saying it was
against her father's express command she did so.
Prospero only smiled, at this first instance of his daughter's
disobedience, for having by his magic art caused his daughter to
fall in love so suddenly, he was not angry that she showed her
love by forgetting to obey his commands. And he listened well
pleased to a long speech of Ferdinand's, in which he professed
to love her above all the ladies he ever saw.
In answer to his praises of her beauty, which he said exceeded all
the women in the world, she replied, "I do not remember the face
of any woman, nor have I seen any more men than you, my good
friend, and my dear father. How features are abroad, I know not;
but, believe me, sir, I would not wish any companion in the world
but you, nor can my imagination form any shape but yours that I
could like. But, sir, I fear I talk to you too freely, and that
my father's precepts I forget."
At this Prospero smiled, and nodded his head, as much as to
say, "This goes on exactly as I could wish; my girl will be queen
And then Ferdinand, in another fine long speech (for young
princes speak in courtly phrases), told the innocent Miranda he was
heir to the crown of Naples, and that she should be his queen.
"Ah! sir," said she, "I am a fool to weep at what I am glad of.
I will answer you in plain and holy innocence. I am your wife if
you will marry me."
Prospero prevented Ferdinand's thanks by appearing visible before
"Fear nothing, my child," said he, "I have overheard and
approve of all you have said. And, Ferdinand, if I have too severely
used you, I will make you rich amends by giving you my daughter.
All your vexations were but trials of your love, and you have
nobly stood the test. Then as my gift, which your true love has
worthily purchased, take my daughter, and do not smile that I boast
she is above all praise." He then, telling them that he had business
that required his presence, desired that they would sit down and
talk together until he returned; and this command Miranda seemed
not at all disposed to disobey.
When Prospero left them, he called his spirit Ariel, who quickly
appeared before him, eager to relate what he had done with Prospero's
brother and the king of Naples. Ariel said he had left them
almost out of their senses with fear, at the strange things he had
caused them to see and hear. When fatigued with wandering about,
and famished for want of food, he had suddenly set before them
a delicious banquet, and then, just as they were going to eat, he
appeared visible before them in the shape of a harpy, a voracious
monster with wings, and the feast vanished away. Then, to their
utter amazement, this seeming harpy spoke to them, reminding them
of their cruelty in driving Prospero from his dukedom, and leaving
him and his infant daughter to perish in the sea, saying, that
for this cause these terrors were suffered to afflict them.
The king of Naples and Antonio the false brother repented
the injustice they had done to Prospero; and Ariel told his master
that he was certain their penitence was sincere, and that he, though
a spirit, could not but pity them.
"Then bring them hither, Ariel," said Prospero: "if you, who
are but a spirit, feel for their distress, shall not I, who am a
human being like themselves, have compassion on them? Bring them
quickly, my dainty Ariel."
Ariel soon returned with the king, Antonio, and old Gonzalo in
their train, who had followed him, wondering at the wild music
he played in the air to draw them on to his master's presence.
This Gonzalo was the same who had so kindly provided Prospero
formerly with books and provisions, when his wicked brother left
him, as he thought, to perish in an open boat in the sea.
Grief and terror had so stupefied their senses that they did not
know Prospero. He first discovered himself to the good old Gonzalo,
calling him the preserver of his life; and then his brother and
the king knew that he was the injured Prospero.
Antonio, with tears and sad words of sorrow and true repentance,
implored his brother's forgiveness; and the king expressed his
sincere remorse for having assisted Antonio to depose his brother,
and Prospero forgave them; and, upon their engaging to restore his
dukedom, he said to the king of Naples, "I have a gift in store
for you, too;" and opening a door, showed him his son Ferdinand
playing at chess with Miranda.
Nothing could exceed the joy of the father and the son at this
unexpected meeting, for they each thought the other drowned in
"O wonder!" said Miranda, "what noble creatures these are!
It must surely be a brave world that has such people in it."
The king of Naples was almost as much astonished at the beauty
and excellent graces of the young Miranda as his son had been.
"Who is this maid?" said he; "she seems the goddess that has
parted us, and brought us thus together." "No, sir," answered
Ferdinand, smiling to find his father had fallen into the same
mistake that he had done when he first saw Miranda, "she is a mortal,
but by immortal Providence she is mine; I chose her when I could
not ask you, my father, for your consent, not thinking you were
alive. She is the daughter to this Prospero, who is the famous duke
of Milan, of whose renown I have heard so much, but never saw him
till now; of him I have received a new life; he has made himself
to me a second father, giving me this dear lady."
"Then I must be her father," said the king; "but oh! how oddly
will it sound, that I must ask my child forgiveness."
"No more of that," said Prospero: "let us not remember our
troubles past, since they so happily have ended." And then Prospero
embraced his brother, and again assured him of his forgiveness;
and said that a wise, overruling Providence had permitted that
he should be driven from his poor dukedom of Milan, that his
daughter might inherit the crown of Naples, for that by their
meeting in this desert island, it had happened that the king's son
had loved Miranda.
These kind words which Prospero spoke, meaning to comfort his
brother, so rilled Antonio with shame and remorse that he wept
and was unable to speak; and the kind old Gonzalo wept to see
this joyful reconciliation, and prayed for blessings on the young
Prospero now told them that their ship was safe in the harbor,
and the sailors all on board her, and that he and his daughter
would accompany them home the next morning. "In the meantime,"
says he, "partake of such refreshments as my poor cave affords;
and for your evening's entertainment I will relate the history
of my life from my first landing in this desert island." He then
called for Caliban to prepare some food, and set the cave in order;
and the company were astonished at the uncouth form and the savage
appearance of this ugly monster, who (Prospero said) was the
only attendant he had to wait upon him.
Before Prospero left the island, he dismissed Ariel from his service,
to the great joy of that lively little spirit, who, though he had
been a faithful servant to his master, was always longing to enjoy
his free liberty, to wander uncontrolled in the air, like a wild bird,
under green trees, among pleasant fruits and sweet-smelling flowers.
"My quaint Ariel," said Prospero to the little sprite when he
made him free, "I shall miss you; yet you shall have your freedom."
"Thank you, my dear master," said Ariel; "but give me leave to attend
your ship home with prosperous gales, before you bid farewell to the
assistance of your faithful spirit; and then, master, when I am free,
how merrily shall I live!" Here Ariel sung this pretty song:
"Where the bee sucks, there sack I;
In a cowslip's bell I lie;
There I couch when owls do cry.
On the bat's back I do fly
After summer merrily.
Merrily, merrily shall I live now,
Under the blossom that hangs on the bough."
Prospero then buried deep in the earth his magical books and
wand, for he was resolved never more to make use of the magic
art And having thus overcome his enemies, and being reconciled
to his brother and the king of Naples, nothing now remained to
complete his happiness but to revisit his native land, to take possession
of his dukedom, and to witness the happy nuptials of his
daughter Miranda and Prince Ferdinand, which the king said should
be instantly celebrated with great splendor on their return to Naples.
At which place, under the safe convoy of the spirit Ariel, they, after
a pleasant voyage, soon arrived.